Working through an ethical dilemma to a satisfactory conclusion, making decisions that lead to good actions, and avoiding negative consequences and regrets are the basic principles of ethical practice (Noel-Weiss et al., 2012). An example of an ethical problem that is most prevalent in business would be the hiring and firing of employees, regardless of whether the employee will be able to sustain himself after being fired from his position. It should be borne in mind that knowledge of the truth is one of the fundamental rights of patients and their family members. According to similar studies, explaining the error could be a stressful situation for patients, combined with intense emotional reactions from patients/family members or the healthcare team. In general, the person who made the mistake has a sense of guilt or fear of punishment, and patients/family members experience feelings such as anger and fear. In addition, it should be noted that primary conversations usually take place when there is no accurate and complete information about the event, so it is not possible to recognize, understand and explain all the details in complicated clinical situations. Therefore, it is proposed that in such situations, information should be given in several stages and through psychological support to the patient. In addition, while the patient`s family may require supportive interventions, they may be considered an important source of information in the root cause analysis (CRA) process of similar incidents (17-20). Since creating ethical patient safety is a multidimensional achievement, it should be taken into account that an active partnership with the patient`s family can be a successful approach to detecting and preventing medical errors (10). Ethical dilemmas arise when there are equally compelling reasons for and against a certain course of action and a decision must be made.
It is a dilemma because there is a conflict between decisions. Usually, an action, while morally right, violates another ethical norm. A classic example is stealing to feed your family. Theft is legally and ethically reprehensible, but if your family starves, it may be morally justified (Noel-Weiss et al., 2012). Archivists and researchers face the challenge of applying already vague ethical and legal practices to the less familiar social media landscape. Discussion of the most important ethical and legal issues should make it clear that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to the problems that arise when collecting social media. However, archivists and researchers face important ethical and legal considerations when making decisions about collection, research and publication. The same thinking that is made when making decisions for traditional content should also be made when harvesting and preserving social media content. That`s why learning about the ethical and legal landscape is an important first step in creating social media collection programs. Justice speaks in favour of equality and fairness of treatment. Hippocrates applied ethical principles to the individual relationship between doctor and patient. Today`s ethical theory must extend beyond individuals to the institutional and societal domains (Gabard & Martin, 2003).
The American Nursing Association (ANA) guides nursing practice with the Code of Ethics for Nurses.  This Code provides a framework for ethical management and guidance for decision-making. The objectives of the Nurses` Code of Ethics are to: Professional ethics and patient safety are closely related fundamental concepts in medicine. Patient safety is based on ethical principles, which are considered indicators of quality of care (15). Patient safety requires the establishment and implementation of a code of professional ethics. Based on Iran`s Code of Conduct for Health Professionals, all patients are expected to be treated with dignity and protected from potential harm (16). Therefore, adherence to ethical principles requires health care providers to identify potential safety deficiencies in order to prevent falls (15). Another similarity is that legal and ethical standards help society as a whole. The legal norms are there to allow the authorities to punish offenders so that people have some kind of security. Ethical standards exist for the same reason. Both are there to help people feel safe and prevent people from being hurt by others.
In addition, training and emphasis on the Code of Conduct can be effective in deepening understanding and belief in the moral foundations of patient safety. As long as an organization uses its trademark and defends it against counterfeiting, the protection it grants does not expire. For this reason, many organizations defend their brand against other companies whose branding even slightly copies their brand. For example, Chick-fil-A protected the phrase „Eat Mor Chikin“ and vigorously defended it against a small business with the slogan „Eat More Kale.“ Coca-Cola has trademarked the shape of its bottle`s outline and will take legal action against any company that uses a bottle design similar to theirs. Examples of trademarks that have been diluted and have now lost their protection in the U.S. include „aspirin“ (originally protected by Bayer), „escalator“ (originally protected by Otis) and „yo-yo“ (originally protected by Duncan). Ethically and legally have different meanings, although they both aim to ensure that people live well. Ethical means carrying the value of distinguishing good from bad behavior, while legal means acting in accordance with the law. • What is legal may be unethical. For example, firing an employee by a company is not illegal, but it can be unethical. In addition to SAA`s Code of Ethics and Core Values, SAA members have written case studies of the ethical dilemmas they have faced and the aspect of the Code of Ethics to which it relates.
Currently, the four case studies on the SAA website show that archivists need to document all their selections and decisions when conserving collections. Archivists should also consult other relevant sources, whether peers or interest groups, to ensure that all relevant perspectives influence their selection behaviour.  In addition, archives must be aware of the culturally sensitive material in its collections and how to treat it ethically.  Ethical standards, on the other hand, do not necessarily have a legal basis. They are based on the human principles of good and evil. For example, if you try to park your car in a parking lot and there is only one parking space left, the only legal standard you must follow is not to exceed the speed limit or crash into another car. Now, if you see another car going to that place, ethical standards tell you not to fight for space, but to give room to the car that was there first. It is the right thing to do. This is an ethical standard. Imagine you were the one walking around the place right now, and someone was walking by and parking there.
You would feel treated unfairly, and yes, you have been wronged, ethically. In addition, legal and ethical standards aim to improve the quality of life of all members of society and to ensure that they live together peacefully, without the threat of terrorism or criminal activities.